The relative amount of carbon species and hydrogen ions present in the water column
is displayed here. The most abundant compound is the bicarbonate ion, while
hydrogen ions react quickly with other compounds, being the proportion left rather small.
In the future the dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to a slight
increase in bicarbonate ions, a decrease of carbonate ions and ultimately to an
excess of hydrogen ions triggering the ocean acidification effect.
The relative abundance of carbon species in the water column has been taken from
"Introduction to CO2 chemistry in Sea Water", by Andrew G. Dickson at Scripps. Beware that the hydrogen concentration has been
magnified in the dataviz due to its much lower concentration by some orders of
magnitude compared to the carbon species.
Changes in carbon species are calculated from the mean of several earth system models
as an average of the 2080-2100 time period, including the following models: CNRM-ESM1,
GFDL-ESM2G, GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, IPSL-CM5A-MR, MPI-ESM-LR, MPI-ESM-MR
and CESM1-BGC future scenario.
The brownian motion of particles done in D3.js to mimick the carbonate chemistry
has used the development by @mike_skaug on the topic.