Future Model Projections of Ocean Acidification Markers

CMIP5 Models Families

The list of models that have been considered in the future model projections are listed here, together with an extract of their description in their original sources, the main reference in scientific literature to each model family as well as the link to the group that has developed the model. They were all used to perform experiments in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5).


The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a coupled climate model for simulating Earth's climate system. It is composed of separate models simultaneously simulating the Earth's atmosphere, ocean, land, land-ice, and sea-ice, plus one central coupler component.

CESM consists of seven geophysical models: atmosphere (atm), sea-ice (ice), land (lnd), river-runoff (rof), ocean (ocn), land-ice (glc), and ocean-wave (wav - stub only), plus a coupler (cpl) .


Hurrell, J.W., Holland, M.M., Gent, P.R., Ghan, S., Kay, J.E., Kushner, P.J., Lamarque, J.F., Large, W.G., Lawrence, D., Lindsay, K. and Lipscomb, W.H., 2013. The community earth system model: a framework for collaborative research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(9), pp.1339-1360.



CNRM-CM5 is an Earth system model designed to run climate simulations. It consists of several existing models designed independently and coupled through the OASIS software. CNRM-CM5 is jointly developed and used by CNRM-GAME and CERFACS.

It includes ARPEGE-Climate for the atmosphere, NEMO for the ocean, GELATO for sea-ice, developed at CNRM-GAME (Salas-Mélia, 2002), SURFEX for land and the ocean-atmospheric fluxes TRIP to simulate river routing and water discharge from rivers to the ocean.

The CNRM-CM5 has simulated the historical period (1850-present) and to perform climate change attribution studies, future climate depending on greenhouse gases scenarios, paleo-climates: last interglacial (131000-115000 years before present), last glacial maximum (21000 years before present), mid-holocene (6000 years before present) and seasonal forecasts.


Voldoire, A., Sanchez-Gomez, E., y Mélia, D.S., Decharme, B., Cassou, C., Sénési, S., Valcke, S., Beau, I., Alias, A., Chevallier, M. and Déqué, M., 2013. The CNRM-CM5. 1 global climate model: description and basic evaluation. Climate Dynamics, 40(9-10), pp.2091-2121.



GFDL has constructed NOAA’s first Earth System Models (ESMs). It is based on an atmospheric circulation model coupled with an oceanic circulation model, with representations of land, sea ice and iceberg dynamics. ESMs incorporate interactive biogeochemistry, including the carbon cycle. Building the ESMs has been a large collaborative effort involving scientists from GFDL, Princeton University, US Department of Interior and other institutions.

The models differ mainly in the physical ocean component. In one model, ESM2M, pressure-based vertical coordinates are used along the developmental path of GFDL’s Modular Ocean Model version 4.1. In the other, ESM2G, an independently developed isopycnal model using the Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics (GOLD) code base was used. Both ESM2M and ESM2G utilize a more advanced land model, LM3, than was available in ESM2.1 including a variety of enhancements. While the models demonstrate similar overall scale fidelity, they have important differences in both their thermocline characteristics, deep circulation, ventilation patterns and El Nino variability that suggest critical roles for details of ocean configuration in the coupled carbon climate system.


Dunne, J.P., John, J.G., Adcroft, A.J., Griffies, S.M., Hallberg, R.W., Shevliakova, E., Stouffer, R.J., Cooke, W., Dunne, K.A., Harrison, M.J. and Krasting, J.P., 2012. GFDL’s ESM2 global coupled climate–carbon earth system models. Part I: Physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics. Journal of Climate, 25(19), pp.6646-6665.



HadGEM2 stands for the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2. The HadGEM2 family of climate models represents the second generation of HadGEM configurations, with additional functionality including a well-resolved stratosphere and Earth System components. The HadGEM2 family includes a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration, with or without a vertical extension in the atmosphere to include a well-resolved stratosphere, and an Earth-System configuration which includes dynamic vegetation, ocean biology and atmospheric chemistry.

It also has the capability to capture the time-dependent fingerprint of historical climate change in response to natural and anthropogenic forcings [Stott et al. 2000] which has made it a particularly useful tool in studies concerning the detection and attribution of past climate changes.


Collins, W.J., Bellouin, N., Doutriaux-Boucher, M., Gedney, N., Hinton, T., Jones, C.D., Liddicoat, S., Martin, G., O’Connor, F., Rae, J. and Senior, C., 2008. Evaluation of the HadGEM2 model. Hadley Cent. Tech. Note, 74.



The IPSL-CM5 model is the last version of the IPSL model and is a full earth system model. Based on a physical atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice model, it also includes a representation of the carbon cycle, the stratospheric chemistry and the tropospheric chemistry with aerosols. There are two versions of this model, with two different sets of physical models: the IPSL-CM5A is a direct extension of IPSL-CM4 whereas the IPSL-CM5B has an atmospheric model with very different physical parametrisations. The IPSL-CM5 model participates to the CMIP5 project.

There were initially two versions of this model, with two different sets of physical models: the IPSL-CM5A is an extension of IPSL-CM4 whereas the IPSL-CM5B has an atmospheric model with very different physical parametrisations. IPSL-CM5A has been updated to form the IPSL-CM5A2 model with the aim of having a fast version for long simulations.

IPSL-CM5 is based on the following model components, the LMDZ atmospheric model, the NEMO ocean model, including sea ice and marine biogeochemistry, the ORCHIDEE model of continental surfaces including carbon cycle, the INCA model of chemistry and aerosols, LMDz-REPROBUS coupled chemistry-climate model. The IPSL climate model uses the OASIS coupler.


Dufresne, J.L., Foujols, M.A., Denvil, S., Caubel, A., Marti, O., Aumont, O., Balkanski, Y., Bekki, S., Bellenger, H., Benshila, R. and Bony, S., 2013. Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5. Climate Dynamics, 40(9-10), pp.2123-2165.



MPI-ESM couples the atmosphere, ocean and land surface through the exchange of energy, momentum, water and carbon dioxide. The MPI‐ESM consists of the coupled general circulation models for the atmosphere and the ocean, ECHAM6 [Stevens et al., 2013] and MPIOM [Jungclaus et al., 2013], and the subsystem models for land and vegetation JSBACH [Reick et al., 2013; Schneck et al., 2013] and for the marine biogeochemistry HAMOCC5 [Ilyina et al., 2013], respectively.

The coupling of atmosphere and land on the one hand and ocean and biogeochemistry on the other hand is made possible by the separate coupling program OASIS3.

Through the inclusion of these process models, the carbon cycle has been added to the model system. This constitutes the largest conceptual difference between MPI‐ESM and its predecessor model ECHAM5/MPIOM [Jungclaus et al., 2006] that has been used for CMIP3.


Giorgetta, M.A., Jungclaus, J., Reick, C.H., Legutke, S., Bader, J., Böttinger, M., Brovkin, V., Crueger, T., Esch, M., Fieg, K. and Glushak, K., 2013. Climate and carbon cycle changes from 1850 to 2100 in MPI‐ESM simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 5(3), pp.572-597.